THE POTENTIAL OF ENDOPHYTIC FUNGI AS BIOCONTROL AND PHOSPATE SOLUBILIZATION AGENT IN Capsicum anuum
Keywords:Capsicum anuum, endophytic fungi, pathogenic fungi, phospholytic fungi
The productivity of chili (Capsicum annuum) in Indonesia is currently very low. Some factors that influenced it including the presence of pathogenic microorganisms which lead to the low availability of phosphate in the soil. This condition become a limiting factor for plant growth and production. Endophytic fungi can be used as antagonistic agents in inhibiting pathogenic fungi and to increase the efficiency of phosphate solubilization known as phospholytic fungi. This study aimed to find antagonistic agents from endophytic fungi that can suppress the growth of pathogenic fungi and test the ability of endophytic fungi to dissolve phosphate. Fungi isolates used were BB-Biogen collection isolates, consisting of 42 endophytic fungi isolates, and 3 pathogenic fungi isolates (Fusarium sp., Colletotrichum acutatum, Phytophthora capsici) on chili plants (C. annuum). The antagonism test was carried out using the dual culture method in the Potato Dextrose Agar (PDA) medium for 5 days incubation at temperature (± 28 ° C). The parameters measured were based on the formation of inhibition zones and the calculation of the percentage of growth inhibition of fungi isolates. The test results obtained 7 representative fungi isolates (RIVA4, RIVA5, MIVD2, Aspergillus niger, Cladosporium sp., Cladosporium oxysporum, and Chaetomium globosum). Based on the calculation of the percentage of growth inhibition, fungi isolates with RIVA5 code have a higher potential in inhibiting the growth of all three pathogenic fungi. Calculation of the percentage of endophytic fungi inhibition of RIVA5 were 70.3% (Fusarium sp.), 63.3% (C. acutatum), and 60% (P. capsici). Phosphate test was carried out by the cork borer method in pikovskaya medium for 4 days incubation at 27-28 ° C. The parameters measured were based on the formation of clear zones around the colony. There were 4 endophytic fungi isolates (MIVA4, MIVF7, Aspergillus sydowii, and A. niger) formed a clear zone around the colony, which indicates the presence of phospholytic activity. Based on the calculation of the phospholytic index, A. niger isolates have a high phosphate solubility index value of 5.
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