Bacterial Empire <p><strong>Bacterial Empire</strong>&nbsp;(<strong>ISSN 2585-9374</strong>) is Open Access, peer- reviewed online scientific&nbsp;journal published by the SciCell publishing company. The major focus of the journal is a regular publishing of original scientific article, short communication and reviews about all of kind of articles relation to bacterial world, all ways of bacteriology.&nbsp;</p> SciCell publishing company en-US Bacterial Empire 2585-9374 IDENTIFICATION AND ISOLATION OF DOMINANT BACTERIA IN TRADITIONAL ISFAHAN CHEESE AND DETERMINATION IF EFFECTIVE COMPOUNDS IN FLAVOR <p>Cheese production by native starter cultures instead of commercial ones is beneficial in respect of higher quality, nutrient content, immunogenicity and having beneficial microorganism. The objective of the presented study was molecular identifying of microorganism and exploring its active ingredients in native cheese.</p> <p>MRS and M17 media were used to culture bacteria in 15, 37 and 45°c for 24, 48 and 72 hours and then morphologic and biochemical tests were used to identifying the species. Predominant species were detected using 16S rRNA and gene sequencing. Active ingredients and fatty acid profile was studied by GC lactobacili, lactococci and enterococci were identified as the predominant bacteria. Acid palmitic had the highest concentration among the saturated fatty acid, with 42.47%, and acid meristic and acid lauric acid were next with the 13.22% and 3.9% concentration respectively, among the unsaturated fatty acids.</p> Farahnaz Karbasiun Hashem Nayeri Sedigheh Mehrabian Mehrnoosh Mirmoghtadayi Copyright (c) 2021 Farahnaz Karbasiun, Hashem Nayeri, Sedigheh Mehrabian, Mehrnoosh Mirmoghtadayi 2021-06-10 2021-06-10 e278 e278 10.36547/be.278 BIO-FLOCCULATION AND ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITIES OF POWDERED MORINGA OLEIFERA (LAM) SEEDS AND ALUM ON DOMESTIC WASTEWATER MICROBIAL CONSORTIA <p><strong>Introduction</strong>:<em> Moringa oleifera</em> seed is a bio-flocculant liable to purify water and verified to be one of the generally efficient prime coagulants for water treatment. <em>M. oleifera </em>seeds also have the potentials to eliminate a broad variety of bacteria, including <em>Escherichia</em> <em>coli</em>, <em>Bacillus subtilis</em>, <em>B. cereus</em>, <em>Pseudomonas aeruginosa</em> and <em>Enterobacter ludwigii</em>, from domestic wastewater.</p> <p><strong>Objective:</strong> The comparative bio-flocculating ability and antimicrobial activities of powdered<em> Moringa oleifera </em>seeds and alum for the treatment of domestic wastewater from a university student’ hostels were explored.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> Collection of wastewater samples, physicochemical analysis of wastewater samples and treatment of the wastewater samples with powdered<em> M. oleifera </em>seeds and alum were conducted using standard techniques. Enumeration and identification of bacteria using biochemical depiction and (16S RNA) with fungi after treatment were employed via standard protocols.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The optimum pH obtained using powdered <em>M. oleifera </em>seeds was 6.00 – 7.38 and in line with the recommended WHO standard. This study revealed that the bacterial count in wastewater samples of Jibowu and Abiola hostels after treatment with 2g of powdered<em> M. oleifera </em>seeds and 6g of alum was high (199.67±0.89 CFU/ml); low (26.00±0.57 CFU/ml) for powdered<em> M. oleifera </em>seeds and high (87.00±0.57 CFU/ml); low (6.33±0.57 CFU/ml) for alum respectively. The fungal count of the wastewater samples for Akindeko and Jibowu hostels after treatment with 2g of powdered <em>M. oleifera </em>seeds and 6g of alum was high (26.00±0.57 Sfu/ml); low (5.00±0.57 Sfu/ml) for powdered<em> M. oleifera </em>seeds and high (19.00±0.58 Sfu/ml); low (2.00±0.57 Sfu/ml) for alum respectively. <em>Escherichia</em> <em>coli</em>, <em>Bacillus subtilis</em> with NCBI-certified <em>B. cereus</em> mkbk1, <em>Pseudomonas aeruginosa</em> mkbk 2 and <em>Enterobacter ludwigii</em> mkbk 3 were isolated from the wastewater samples.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> The findings of this study suggest that the bio-flocculating ability of powdered <em>M. oleifera </em>seeds accentuated better antimicrobial efficacy of<em> M. oleifera </em>over alum as a proviso to the blend of powdered <em>M. oleifera </em>seeds and alum for the treatment of domestic wastewaters.</p> Olubukola Olusola-makinde Michael Bayode Eniola Dawodu Copyright (c) 2021 Bacterial Empire 2021-05-25 2021-05-25 e267 e267 10.36547/be.267 ISOLATION, CHARACTERIZATION AND IDENTIFICATION OF Lactobacillus fermentum EIPW5A ISOLATED FROM WHEY <p>The probiotic organisms are now used widely for different clinical indications. In an attempt to isolate a good probiotic strain for therapeutic applications, we have screened several isolates having probiotic attributes. The essential probiotic characters such as lactic acid production, antimicrobial activity, acid and bile tolerance, vitamin B<sub>12</sub> production and antibiotic resistance pattern were considered as parameters for screening of probiotic bacteria from its natural habitats. Considering the said probiotic properties the strain EIPW5A was selected for the present study. The organism was identified as <em>Lactobacillus fermentum</em> based on its morphological, biochemical, physiological characters and 16S rRNA gene sequencing results.</p> Dipanwita Bhattacharjee Barun Bhattacharyya Copyright (c) 2021 Bacterial Empire 2021-04-30 2021-04-30 e248 e248 10.36547/be.248 EFFECTS OF GAS FLARING ON THE MICROBIAL AND PHYSICOCHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF SOILS IN DELTA STATE <p>This study was carried out to determine the impact of gas flaring on microbial and physicochemical characteristics of soil around Ebedei and Kwale Flow Stations in Delta State, Nigeria. Soil samples were collected around Ebedei, in Ukwuani local government area, and Kwale, in Ndokwe West local government area both in Delta State, as well as in their environs. While the soil samples were collected for the analysis of physical, chemical and biological properties of the soil. The highest concentration of the heavy metals was obtained at 10m away from the flaring sites (P &lt; 0.05). In both Ebedei and Kwale, the Fe concentration is significantly higher (1080.33 and 1080.68 mg/kg, respectively) that the other two heavy metals. However, there was a significant difference in the concentration of Zn between Ebedei and Kwale (P &lt; 0.05). In both Ebedei and Kwale, the ECEC concentration is significantly higher (8.16 and 6.57 meq/100g, respectively) that the other chemical parameters. The physicochemical properties were similar at the different distances away from gas flaring sites (P&gt; 0.05). EC decreased from 119.12µs/cm (at 10m) to 50.4 (at 100m) and then to 44.37 (at 200m). pH value remained acidic ranging from 4.97 (at 10m) to 5.9 (at 200m); moisture content ranged from 3.25% (at 10m) to 5.89% (at 200m); organic matter ranged from 1.07% (at 10m) to 1.61 % (at 200m); NO<sub>3</sub> reduced sharply from 10.35 mg/kg (at 10m) to 3.92mg/kg (at 100m) and then to 2.4mg/kg (at 200m); phosphate dropped from 0.91mg/kg at (at 10m) to 0.95mg/kg (at 100m) to 0.42mg/kg (at 200m). There was a significant difference in the amount of some physicochemical properties in the soil samples collected from the gas flaring areas in Ebedei and Kwale (P&lt;0.05). Ebedei, Kwale and environs constitute part of the most vegetative and productive areas of the Niger Delta region, these areas are also rich in several pharmacological properties and water resources. The Government should ensure the enforcement of laws aimed at minimizing the amount of gas flared into the atmosphere. Urgent efforts should be geared at cushioning the effect of gas flaring on the communities affected, probably by compensating them or, by relocating them to a more environmental friendly settlement with compensations.</p> Joseph Enuenwemba Nduka Uraih William Tanimowo Hilda Emmanuel-Akerele Copyright (c) 2021 Joseph Enuenwemba, Nduka Uraih, William Tanimowo, Hilda Emmanuel-Akerele 2021-07-01 2021-07-01 e309 e309 10.36547/be.309 ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF SOAP MADE FROM ESSENTIAL OILS AND COMMERCIAL SOAP SOLD IN THE LEBANESE MARKET <p><strong>Background: </strong>Thousands of people are dying as a result of infections caused by bacteria. Among the main routes of germ transmission are the hands, making hand hygiene very important in preventing the spread of pathogens and bacterial infection. Hand washing with soap and water is considered to be a simple and effective measure. Old soap manufacturers have long had traditional uses in the Lebanese community.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> The purpose of this study is to compare the antibacterial activity of oil-based soaps with commercial soap sold in the Lebanese market. Different types of herbal soap and antiseptics have been used in this study. Four bacterial strains were used: <em>Staphylococcus aureus</em>, <em>Staphylococcus epidermidis</em>, <em>Pseudomonas aeruginosa</em>,<em> Escherichia coli</em> and <em>Enterobacter</em> Spp. The antibacterial activities of these soaps were determined by the diffusion method of disks in agar medium.</p> <p><strong>Results and Discussion:</strong> Statistical analysis of zones of inhibition showed that <em>S. epidermidis</em>, <em>P. aeruginosa</em> and <em>Enterobacter</em> Spp. were sensitive only to traditional oil-based soaps, which are Sage, Rose Mary and Cedar. In addition, <em>S. aureus</em> showed sensitivity to soaps comprised of essential oils as well as antibacterial synthetic soap, Dettol and Lifebuoy. On the other hand, <em>E. coli</em> showed resistance to all soaps. Soaps comprised of natural essential oils have shown antibacterial activity superior to so-called “Antibacterial” soaps.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Based on this study, we can say that the use of soaps with essential oils might be the best option due to their organic origin as well as their antibacterial proved activities.</p> Candy GERGES Mohamad HADLA Michele ELIALI Martine RICHA Nour Mammari Mohamad Adnan HALABI Copyright (c) 2021 Candy GERGES, Mohamad HADLA , Michele ELIALI, Martine RICHA, Nour Mammari, Mohamad Adnan HALABI 2021-06-29 2021-06-29 e304 e304 10.36547/be.304 OPTIMIZATION OF MOLECULAR DETECTION FOR Vibrio cholerae and PATHOGENIC Escherichia coli USING MULTIPLEX PCR <p><em>Vibrio cholerae</em> and pathogenic <em>Escherichia coli</em> were considered as main causative agent foodborne diseases especially in many developing countries, such as Indonesia. Thereby, rapid detection of these pathogenic bacteria is necessary to treat food-borne related diseases causing by these bacteria. In this case, multiplex PCR allows multiple genes amplification in one reaction thereby enable to perform rapid detection of these pathogenic bacteria. The objective of this study is to optimize uniplex and multiples PCR of <em>V. cholerae</em> and pathogenic <em>E. coli</em> detection and determine the sensitivity and specificity of this assays. We used various virulence genes for each pathogenic bacterium as markers for uniplex and multiplex PCR detection. Based on this research, the optimum results of <em>V. cholerae</em> and pathogenic <em>E. coli</em> were obtained with a primer concentration of 16 µM for <em>ctxA</em> and <em>ompU</em>, 30 µM for <em>ace</em>, and 50 µM for <em>zot</em>, and <em>toxR</em>; 2 µM for <em>elt</em> and 5 µM for <em>stx</em>, respectively. Finally, based on the standardization method by ISO/TS 20836 these assays had 0% false positive, 0% false negative, 100% specificity, and 100% sensitivity; 0% false positive, 4% false negative, 100% specificity, and 96% sensitivity for <em>V. cholerae</em> and pathogenic <em>E. coli</em> respectively. The optimized method was qualified to be used as a molecular detection <em>for V. cholerae</em> as well as EHEC and ETEC detection according to ISO/TS 20836 (2017) from drinking water samples.</p> Diana Elizabeth Waturangi Jason Petrus Rico Kosasih Felicia Roseline Copyright (c) 2021 Bacterial Empire 2021-05-24 2021-05-24 e299 e299 10.36547/be.299 MICROBIOLOGICAL ASSESSMENT OF BOREHOLES, SACHET AND BOTTLE WATER IN AYOBO, LAGOS <p>The physicochemical and bacteriological quality of borehole, bottle and sachet water sold within Ayobo community Lagos state, Nigeria was investigated. Microbiological analysis was carried out using standard microbial procedure to ensure that the water is microbiologically safe. It was screened for the presence of coliforms and other pathogenic microorganisms. The total heterotrophic bacterial count for bottle, sachet and borehole water are 16.50-123.50 x 10<sup>3</sup>CFU/ml, 65.00-73.00 x 10<sup>3</sup>CFU/ml and 0.00-72.00 x 10<sup>3</sup>CFU/ml respectively while the total heterotrophic fungal count for bottle, sachet and borehole water are 5.00-54.50 x 10<sup>3</sup>CFU/ml, 11.00-27.50 x 10<sup>3</sup>CFU/ml and 6.00-16.16.00 x 10<sup>3</sup>CFU/ml respectively. Most probable number was determined using membrane filtration method and it ranged from 15MPN/100ml, 22MPN/100ml, and 27MPN/100 ml for bottle, sachet and borehole water respectively. The mean total coliform per 100ml ranged from 22-30 x 10<sup>3</sup>CFU/ml while fecal coliform ranged from 4-11 x 10<sup>3</sup>CFU/ml. The isolated organisms were Salmonella paratyphi, Shigella flexneri, Proteus vulgaris, Pseudomonas aeroginosa, Escherichia coli, Citrobacter freudii, Salmonella paratyphi, Aspergillus candidus, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus sulphureus and Penicillium corylophilum. Most of the bacteria isolated showed multidrug resistance to Augmentin, Gentamycin, Pefloxacin, Tarivid, Streptomycin, Septrin, Chloramphenicol and Amoxacillin and showed susceptibility to Ciprofloxacin. The study therefore concludes that these water samples do not meet the WHO standards for potable water; hence they can be potential sources of waterborne diseases.</p> Hilda Emmanuel-Akerele Peace Francis Copyright (c) 2021 Bacterial Empire 2021-05-25 2021-05-25 e287 e287 10.36547/be.287 EVALUATION OF BIOLOGICAL ANTIMICROBIAL EFFECT OF ALOE VERA ON COLIFORM ISOLATES IN LEACHATE FROM A DUMPSITE <p>This study is to evaluate the biological disinfectant ability of Aloe vera (under different conditions and parameters) on coliform isolates from leachate that emanate from a dumpsite.Leachate samplewas subjected to a presumptive test to evaluate the presence of coliforms in them; the positive samples were further subjected to a confirmatory test to identify the thermo-tolerant nature of the coliform. The coliforms were thermo-tolerant <em>Escherichia coli</em> (FTE) and Thermo-tolerant coliform (non <em>E. coli</em>) (FTC) Disinfectant efficacies of Aloe vera (with various condition and parameters) were evaluated on the isolated microorganisms from the leachate samples, using the disc diffusion method. The Aloe vera showed that concentration of the disinfectant matters in its efficacy with 5% storage concentration showing high level of zone of inhibition with the isolated microorganisms. Also the Aloe vera was more effective at a lower pH and storage temperatures of 0, 25 and 35<sup>o</sup>C.</p> Joshua Olu Yusuf Hajara Oyiza Charles Evbomai Ikhide Henry Okokoro Copyright (c) 2021 Bacterial Empire 2021-05-25 2021-05-25 e275 e275 10.36547/be.275 ISOLATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF MULTIDRUG RESISTANT SALMONELLA SPECIES FROM ABATTOIR WASTEWATER IN ABIA STATE, NIGERIA <p>Over the years, zoonotic bacteria of the genus <em>Salmonella</em>, have acquired antimicrobial resistance properties, with a wide variety of resistance genes and resistance-mediating mutations being identified. This study isolated and characterized multiple drug resistant <em>Salmonella</em> species isolated from abattoir wastewaters in Abia State, Nigeria. Seven hundred wastewater samples from three abattoirs: Aba (300), Ubakala (250) and Lokpa (150) samples were analyzed from 2016 to 2019. Standard microbiological procedures were followed in isolation and identification of the <em>Salmonella </em>spp isolates. The antibiotic susceptibility test was done using the Kirby Bauer disk diffusion method. The results showed moderate but significant prevalence of<em> Salmonella </em>spp in the three abattoir locations; 135(45.0%) from Aba, 108 (43.2%) from Ubakala and 74 (49.3%) from Lokpa. The antibiotic susceptibility pattern of the <em>Salmonella </em>spp isolates show that the organisms were highly susceptible to Ofloxacin (84.4% in Aba, 89.8% in Ubakala and 82.4% in Lokpa) and highly resistant to Ampicillin (97.0% in Aba, 91.7% in Ubakala and 98.6% in Lokpa). Most isolates recorded Multiple Antibiotic Resistance (MAR) index greater than (&gt;0.2). This result emphasizes the urgent need for regulation in the use of antibiotics in man and animals and their subsequent disposal into the environment.</p> Kelechi Edward V.I. Ibekwe E.S. Amadi S.I. Umeh Copyright (c) 2021 Bacterial Empire 2021-05-25 2021-05-25 e262 e262 10.36547/be.262 PHOTO EFFECT AND BIO-AUTOGRAPHIC STUDIES OF INTRACELLULAR ORANGE FLUORESCENT PIGMENT PRODUCED BY Bacillus endophyticus <p>Present study has focused on the effect of chemical (solvents) and physical (photo) conditions on pigment production and its bioactivity of intracellular orange fluorescent pigment (IOFP) extracted from soil bacterium Bacillus endophyticus. Standardization of pigment and its colour stability was confirmed by using different solvents (70% &amp; 100% ethanol, hexane, heptane, ethyl acetate, acetone, petroleum ether, chloroform, methanol and distilled water), photo conditions (Dark, U.V light and White light) on pigment production and its bio-activeness by antibacterial activity using agar cup plate method against gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus, streptococcus pyogenes and Listeria monocytogenes) and gram-negative (Salmonella typhi, Vibrio cholera, Shigella Flexneri and E.coli) human pathogens and purification of pigment by TLC coupled with bio-autographic studies. Acetone is proved to be the best solvent for extraction and the pigment was stable in all solvents without changing its colour except heptane. When compared to control (dark incubation) antibacterial activity of IOFP produced in U.V and W. Light was effective against all tested pathogens with slight differences in their antibacterial activity. TLC bio-autographic studies reveal that the separated pure band shows clear zone of inhibition under red back ground of live cells stating that, the compound is active against human bacterial pathogens. Hence this study concludes that, the production and biological activity of the IOFP was independent of light incubation, and TLC guided bio-autographic approach offers a rapid detection technique that avoids the testing of purified fraction once again.</p> Sairam Mantri Chandini Sulthana Syed Naga Rathna Supriya G Amrutha Valli Audupudi Copyright (c) 2021 Bacterial Empire 2021-05-27 2021-05-27 e202 e202 10.36547/be.202 MICROBIAL ASSESSMENT OF FROZEN FOODS SOLD IN AYOBO, LAGOS <p>This study seeks to investigate the microbial profile of frozen fish and meat. Forty samples consisting of <em>Scomber scombrus </em><strong>(</strong>Titus), <em>Clupea harengus </em>(Shawa) and frozen meat (Chicken, Turkey) were purchased from different retail outlets in Ayobo-Ipaja markets for microbiological analysis. The samples were analysed for the total viable count using standard microbiological procedures. The mean bacterial and fungal counts for <em>Scomber scombrus</em>, Chicken, <em>Clupea harengus </em>and Turkey are 254.70±83.81 CFU/G and 5.50±4.45 CFU/G; 210.10±55.03 CFU/G and 6.80±3.39 CFU/G; 298.20±67.35 CFU/G and 6.10±3.87 CFU/G; 221.30±80.33 CFU/G and 4.30±2.00 CFU/G respectively. <em>Clupea harengus </em>has the highest bacterial count while <em>Scomber scombrus </em>has the lowest bacterial count. Chicken has the highest fungal count while Turkey had the lowest fungal count. The microbial isolates from the frozen food samples include species of <em>S. aureus</em>, <em>E. coli, Salmonella</em>, <em>Micrococcus</em>, <em>Aspergillus</em>, and <em>Penicillium</em>. <em>Escherichia coli </em>were susceptible to all the antibiotics while <em>Salmonella</em> sp., <em>Staphylococcus aureus</em>, and <em>Micrococcus</em> were resistance to Augmentin, Gentamycin, Tarivid, and susceptible to Sparfloxacin and Chloramphenicol. Although freezing retard pathogens multiplication, post-harvest contaminants can multiply during thawing to a level that can have a major impact on the quality of the final consumer product. It is advised that frozen foods must be properly cooked before consumption and effective hazard analysis and critical control point implemented.</p> Hilda Emmanuel-Akerele Favour Uchendu Copyright (c) 2021 Hilda Emmanuel-Akerele, Favour Uchendu 2021-07-01 2021-07-01 e305 e305 10.36547/be.305 MATHEMATICAL MODELING OF MICROBIAL GROWTH IN VACUUM-PACKAGED AND REFRIGERATED FRESH COW MEAT <p>Fresh meat is a highly perishable product due to its biological composition. This study examined the effect of different storage time (24, 48, 72 hours), gaseous permeability of packaging film (Aluminum foil and Polyethylene) on the growth of microorganisms (Bacteria and fungi) isolated from the refrigerated cow meat at constant temperature of 0°C. Microbial growth was modeled using Gompertz and Linear Regression Models. The bacteria count was observed to decrease as the storage time increases. While fungi count was observed to increase with increasing storage time. Aluminum foil packaged cow meat samples recorded lower microbial growth when compared to polyethylene packaged samples. In Gompertz model, the specific growth rate (μ) of the test organisms was observed to increase significantly upon a shift of storage time. The transition from 24 hours to 48 hours resulted in large changes in the growth profile with increased maximum population density (MPD) of the test organisms. However, lag phase of approximately two hours for bacteria and five hours for fungi was observed. An increase of storage time from 48 hours to 72 hours, an accelerated μ, higher MPD with reduced lag phase duration (LPD) was observed. In the linear regression model, the coefficient of determination (R<sup>2</sup>) values for aluminum foil packaged samples was 0.3 and polyethylene packaged samples was 0.1. Therefore, it can be concluded that varying storage time at constant temperature; μ and MPD of the test organisms significantly increased with decreasing LPD of both studied vacuum packaging films of the refrigerated fresh cow meat.</p> Odangowei Ogidi Pere-Ere S. Tobia Mike N. Ayebabogha Ayebatitari P. Sunny Copyright (c) 2021 Bacterial Empire 2021-05-27 2021-05-27 e303 e303 10.36547/be.303 ROLE OF ENVIRONMENTAL CONTAMINANTS AND OTHER ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS IN THE SPREAD OF ANTIMICROBIAL RESISTANCE IN AFRICA: PLANETARY HEALTH AS A PANACEA <p>Misuse and overuse of antibiotics have contributed to increased resistance in superbugs which is identified as a public health threat across the globe. Currently, antimicrobial resistance is estimated to cause 700,000 deaths per annum worldwide, and in 2050, about 10 million lives will be lost, of which 41.5% will occur in Africa, being the most vulnerable behind Asia due to limited surveillance, lack of information on emerging resistant strains, and ineffective coordinated approach among others. However, considering the prevalence nature of antimicrobial resistance in Africa, its magnitude is not fully understood in the context of the environment, and little attention has been placed on the role of environmental contaminants and other environmental factors in promoting resistance. This paper, therefore, elucidates some environmental factors and contaminants that contribute to the spread of resistance in Africa and recommends a planetary health approach as a panacea.</p> Yusuf Tajudeen Iyiola Olatunji Oladunjoye Copyright (c) 2021 Bacterial Empire 2021-05-24 2021-05-24 e295 e295 10.36547/be.295