Bacterial Empire <p><strong>Bacterial Empire</strong> (<strong>ISSN 2585-9374, EV 4/22/EPP</strong>) is Open Access, peer- reviewed online scientific journal published by the SciCell publishing company. The major focus of the journal is a regular publishing of original scientific article, short communication and reviews about all of kind of articles relation to bacterial world, all ways of bacteriology. </p> SciCell publishing company en-US Bacterial Empire 2585-9374 ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITIES OF ETHANOL EXTRACTS FROM Croton macrostachyus (Hochst. Ex Delile) AND Justicia schimperiana (Hochst. Ex Nees) BARK AND LEAF AGAINST CERTAIN PATHOGENIC BACTERIA <p>Our study was designed to evaluate antibacterial activities of ethanol extracts from <em>Croton macrostachyus</em> and <em>Justicia schimperiana</em> bark and leaf against certain bacterial pathogens such as <em>E. coli</em> O157 H:7 ATCC 25922, <em>Salmonella</em> Typhi ATCC 13311, <em>Staphylococcus aureus</em> ATCC 25923 and <em>Streptococcus pyogenes </em>ATCC 196151. Qualitative and quantitative methods were followed to screen the phytochemicals in the plants extracts and to estimate total phenolic content (TPC) and terpenoids. Antibacterial activity was evaluated by disc diffusion method and by determination of Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC). The results of the investigation revealed that both the plants were found to contain alkaloids, saponin, steroids, tannins and terpenoids. Highest TPC (3.82±0.82 mg/g Tannic Acid Equivalent) and highest Terpenoid content (118.33±4.4 mg/g) were observed in the leaf extract of <em>C</em>. <em>macrostachyus</em>. Bark extract of <em>C</em>. <em>macrostachyus</em> displayed the strongest activity against the gram-positive bacteria <em>S. aureus</em> with an inhibition zone of 16.17±0.67 mm. <em>E. coli</em> O157 H:7 and <em>S</em>. Typhi were found more resistant to bark extract of <em>J. schimperiana </em>at the concentration of 100 mg/ml. The potent plant part extract should be subjected for further phytochemical analysis and bioactive investigations.</p> Lire Dindamo Sasikumar Jagathala Mahalingam Andualem Getachew Ameha Kebede Copyright (c) 1970 Sasikumar Jagathala Mahalingam, Lire Dindamo, Andualem Getachew, Ameha Kebede 2022-09-22 2022-09-22 5 4 e461 e461 10.36547/be.461 DETERMINATION OF ANTIMICROBIAL PROPERTIES OF Plumbago zeylanica L. <p><strong>Background:</strong> Numerous studies have been conducted on antimicrobial properties that may be useful to overcome the emerging antimicrobial resistance. <em>Plumbago zeylanica </em>(Ela nitul) is especially known as Ceylon leadwort. <em>Plumbago zeylanica</em> has been used in traditional medicine to treat various diseases, including skin rashes, scabies, ringworm, hookworms, dermatitis, acne, sores, and ulcers.</p> <p><strong>Objectives:</strong> The objective of this study was to study the antimicrobial activity of <em>P. zeylanica</em> against a selected panel of pathogenic microorganisms <em>in vitro</em> and to screen the presence of phytochemicals in the aqueous extracts of <em>P. zeylanica</em> root, leaf, stem qualitatively.</p> <p><strong>Material and Methods:</strong> The antibacterial effect of aqueous extracts of roots, leaves and stems of <em>Plumbago zeylanica</em> against <em>Staphylococcus aureus, Acinetobacter baumanniii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa</em>, <em>Escherichia coli</em> and antifungal effect against <em>Candida albicans</em> were studied using well diffusion assay and macro-dilution method. Qualitative screening of the phytochemicals was done using standard methods.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Among the panel of organisms, <em>Candida albicans</em> exhibited the highest susceptibility against root extract of <em>P. zeylanica</em> followed by other organisms including <em>Staphylococcus aureus </em>and <em>Acinetobacter baumannii</em>, <em>Pseudomonas aeruginosa</em>, <em>Escherichia coli, </em>respectively. In qualitative analysis, secondary phytochemicals including alkaloids, flavonoids, steroids, saponins, taninns, chalcones, were determined in the aqueous extract root, leaf and stem, respectively.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> <em>Plumbago zeylanica</em> root extract has exhibited stronger antifungal and antibacterial activity rather than the leaf extract. Stem extract of <em>Plumbago zeylanica</em> didn't show antimicrobial activity against selected organisms. The presence and absence of phytochemicals in different plant materials explain the antimicrobial properties of root, leaf and stem of<em> P. zeylanica</em>.</p> H.G.M. Thenuka K.A.D.H. Randula N.M. Niroskhan N.M.R. Arachchige Samarakoon Nirmani M.M.K. Peiris Copyright (c) 1970 Samarakoon Nirmani 2022-09-22 2022-09-22 5 4 e421 e421 10.36547/be.421 EFFECT OF Mg, Zn, Ca, AND Fe SUPPLEMENTS ON GROWTH, PROBIOTIC POTENTIAL, AND BIOFILM-FORMING CAPACITY OF LACTOBACILLUS BACTERIA <p>The gut microbiome is a complete set of microorganisms found in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. <em>Lactobacillus spp</em>. are beneficial bacteria that are normally found in the gut<em>. </em>They are used as a type of probiotic in order to create a homeostasis in the human microflora. One of the challenges for these bacteria is the ability to adapt to different environments in order to survive and function properly. The main research question of this study was to see whether specific dietary supplements (calcium citrate, iron(II)fumarate, zinc, magnesium oxide) change bacterial properties of <em>Lactobacillus reuteri (L. reuteri)</em> (DSM 17938) and <em>Lactobacillus rhamnosus (L. rhamnosus)</em> GG (ATCC 53103). Presence of dietary supplements affected antibiotic sensitivity of tested bacteria. Results of biochemical testing minimally changed. MICs of tested supplements have been determined as well, where <em>L. reuteri</em> tolerated higher concentrations of supplements compared to <em>L. rhamnosus</em>. Probiotic efficiency was also tested through bile and acid tolerance assays. Obtained results showed that presence of dietary supplements did not alter probiotic efficiency. According to other studies <em>L. reuteri</em> and <em>L. rhamnosus</em> form biofilm structures in the human gut, however they showed very low affinity to form biofilms before and after treatment with dietary supplements when tested in vitro. Previous studies showed that <em>L. reuteri</em> could be used in a treatment for autistic-spectrum disorders. According to results from this study, patients with ASD should avoid zinc in the form of capsules (as dietary supplements) from their diets, since it inhibits growth <em>of L. reuteri.</em> In general, tested dietary supplements, except zinc, did not affect bacterial properties on a large scale.</p> Selma Cifric Mujezinovic Copyright (c) 2022 Selma Cifric Mujezinovic 2022-09-22 2022-09-22 5 4 e501 e501 10.36547/be.501 COMPARATIVE EFFICACY OF MEDICATED SOAPS ON STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS ASSOCIATED WITH WOUNDS AND POST-OPERATIVE WOUNDS FROM HOSPITALS IN ONDO STATE, NIGERIA <p><strong>Introduction:</strong> <em>Staphylococcus aureus</em> remains one of the leading causes of wound infection and medicated soaps have antimicrobial substances which when applied on living tissues, reduces the possibility of <em>S. aureus</em> wound infection, sepsis or putrefaction.</p> <p><strong>Aim:</strong> Therefore, this study is aimed at determining the antibacterial activities of 6 medicated soaps on <em>S. aureus </em>isolated from wounds.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> One hundred and eight (108) wound samples were collected from patients with wound infection found in the orthopedic and surgical wards of selected hospitals in Ondo State. The antibacterial activity of medicated soaps on <em>S. aureus </em>isolated from wound infection was determined using agar well diffusion technique and the antibiogram profile was determined using disc diffusion technique.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Of the 108 wound samples tested, 64 (59.3%) were infected with <em>S. aureus. </em>Tetmosol soap recorded the highest zone of inhibition against all <em>S. aureus </em>strains with (24.3 mm) at 200 mg/ml and (20.3 mm) at 100 mg concentrations. Carat soap had the least antibacterial activity against all staphylococcus strains with (6.0 mm) for both concentrations. Over 70% of the isolates were resistant to amoxicillin, rocephine, gentamycin, zinnacef, ampiclox and septrin; whereas, ≤ 50% were susceptible to ciprofloxacin, streptomycin, erythromycin and perfloxacin. Medicated soaps had a better activity on <em>S.</em> <em>aureus</em> compared to conventional antibiotics.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Therefore, antiseptic soaps could be used in the cleaning of wounds and cuts during time of hurts to prevent infection and the transmission of wound pathogens. However, this should be used moderately by patients in order to avoid irritation and development of microbial resistance in the future.</p> Ekemini Bassey DANIEL AROTUPIN BABAJIDE AJAYI Copyright (c) 1970 Ekemini Bassey,, Prof. Daniel Juwon Arotupin, BABAJIDE AJAYI 2022-11-11 2022-11-11 5 4 e377 e377 10.36547/be.377 MINIMUM INHIBITION AND BACTERICIDAL CONCENTRATIONS OF THE PLANT MORINGA OLEIFERA EXTRACTS AGAINST THE BACTERIA ESCHERICHIA COLI AND STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS <p>This study aimed at assessing the MICs (Minimum Inhibitory Concentrations) and the MBCs (Minimum Bactericidal Concentrations) of the methanolic extracts from 4 different parts (leaves, seeds, stem, roots) of the plant <em>Moringa oleifera </em>against the bacteria <em>E.</em><em> coli </em>and <em>S. aureus</em><em>. </em>Phytochemical profile of each extract has been determined using LC/MS analyses. Microbial analyses were done using 96-wells plate method. Results showed that the four parts on the plants contain heterosides and glucosinolates. Iridoids were found in leaves, stem and roots. Flavonoids were found in leaves and stem. Phenolic acids were found only in leaves and carboxylic acids found only in stem. The abundance and the number of identified compounds of a given class varied from one part of plant to another. The MICs and MBCs varied with respect to the microorganism and the part of the plant. With <em>E. coli</em>, the MICs varied from 0.009 (leaves) to 1.25 mg/mL (seeds), and the MBCs varied from 0.156 (leaves) to 2.5 mg/mL (seeds and stem). With S<em>. aureus</em>, the MICs varied from 0.009 (stem and roots) to 0.039 mg/mL (leaves and roots), and the MBCs varied from 0.078 (leaves) to 4 mg/mL (stem). The bactericidal or bacteriostatic properties of the extracts varied depending on the part of the plant and the microorganism considered. Against <em>E. coli</em>, the leaves, stem and roots extracts were bacteriostatic whereas seeds extract was bactericidal. Against <em>S. aureus</em>, the seeds, stem and roots extracts were bacteriostatic whereas leaves extract was bactericidal.</p> Claire Stéphane Metsopkeng Mireille Ebiane Nougang Antoine Tamsa Arfao Fanny Perrière Luciane Marlyse Moungang Olive Vivien Noah Ewoti Florence Donnadieu Paul Alain Nana Geneviève Bricheux Jean Samuel Eheth Edith Brunelle Mouafo Tamnou Isabelle Ripoche Pierre Chalard Télesphore Sime-Ngando Moïse Nola Copyright (c) 2022 Claire Stéphane Metsopkeng, Mireille Ebiane Nougang, Antoine Tamsa Arfao, Fanny Perrière, Luciane Marlyse Moungang, Olive Vivien Noah Ewoti, Florence Donnadieu, Paul Alain Nana, Geneviève Bricheux, Jean Samuel Eheth, Edith Brunelle Mouafo Tamnou , Isabelle Ripoche, Pierre Chalard, Télesphore Sime-Ngando, Moïse Nola 2022-11-10 2022-11-10 5 4 e484 e484 10.36547/be.484 EFFECT OF OXIDATIVE STRESS ON CATALASE INDUCTION AND OPTIMIZATION OF KINETIC PERFORMANCE OF ENZYME FROM B. SUBTILIS KIBGE HAS 1 <p>The Catalase (H<sub>2</sub>O<sub>2</sub> oxidoreductase, EC. is an enzyme that catalyses the decomposition of hydrogen peroxide to oxygen and water to protect the cell against oxidative stress. The aim of current study is to observe the effect of increasing oxidative stress on the catalase synthesis. Results of the study shows that the increase in oxidative stress by adding 0.1 % cholesterol in medium raises the catalase production <em>by B. Subtilis</em> KIBGE HAS 1. The molecular mass of this partially purified catalase was found to be 210 kDa by native PAGE. The enzyme was purified up to 8.9 %. The enzyme exhibits high thermal stability and retain 80.2 % of its original activity when stored at 50°C for 120 min. with Km and Vmax of 41.89 mM and 77.97 U/mg of protein respectively. Among various metal ions, Na<sup>+</sup>, Ca<sup>+</sup> and Ba<sup>+</sup> ions enhance the catalase activity however; Hg<sup>+</sup> causes an inhibitory effect. The findings of this study give advantage to industries regarding augmentation of catalase production by generating the oxidative stress and therefore indirectly increase the production of enzyme.</p> Saeeda Bano Samina Iqbal Kanwal Abbasi Kauser Siddiqui A. Aman Copyright (c) 1970 saeeda Bano, samina iqbal, kanwal Abbasi, Kauser Siddiqui 2022-11-10 2022-11-10 5 4 e433 e433 10.36547/be.433 MICROBIOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF RECYCLED MANURE USED IN DAIRY COWS BEDDING – REVIEW <p>The economic and social value of cattle, especially dairy cows, is continuously increasing and is defined by the number of lactations during the production period or the milk yield of the individual itself. A significant influence on dairy production of dairy cows has housing comfort and therefore maintaining the quality parameters of the dairy farm is essential. The decreasing availability and increasing costs of traditional underlining materials have increased interest in finding and using alternative materials for underlaying. In this review, we focus on the separated fraction of livestock manure, which, after hygienization, can be a suitable bedding material for dairy cows. We identify possible negative impacts and risks in the context of human or animal health. This article also identifies pathogenic microorganisms that can initiate inflammation of the mammary glands in dairy cows and thus reduce the quality of final food products. Farmers using recycled livestock manure as bedding, reduce the total amount of nutrients which become part of the manure stream due to no net addition of nutrients in the form of bedding, thus increasing potential compliance with environmental regulations.</p> Tomas Jambor Zdenek Drotar Jozef Bires Copyright (c) 2022 Tomas Jambor, Zdenek Drotar, Jozef Bires 2022-12-30 2022-12-30 5 4 e584 e584 10.36547/be.584 BIODEGRADATION OF GLYPHOSATE CONTAINING HERBICIDE BY SOIL BACTERIA <p>Sixty bacterial isolates were isolated from two herbicide contaminated soil farms (Amoyo and University of Ilorin Nursery section both in Kwara State) after enrichment with mineral salt medium (MSM) supplemented with glyphosate containing herbicide. The organophosphorus herbicide efficiently stimulated the growth of bacterial isolates. Bacteria isolated were subjected to screening using varying concentrations of the herbicide ranging from 0.1 to 3% prepared with mineral salt medium. This screening revealed that all the bacterial isolates had biodegradative potential. They however had varying degradative potentials as some had heavy growth while others had only slight growth or no growth on increased concentrations of herbicide. Screening reduces the bacterial populations with growth ranging from 5.0 x 10<sup>4</sup> to 2.33 x 10<sup>8</sup> while the number of bacterial isolates reduced from sixty to thirteen. These bacterial isolates were <em>Pseudomonas</em> <em>putida</em>, <em>Bacillus</em> <em>safenis</em>, <em>Lysinibacillus</em> <em>fusiformis</em>, <em>Micrococcus</em> sp., <em>Arthrobacter</em> sp., <em>Aeromonas</em> sp., <em>Bacillus</em> <em>cereus</em>, <em>Flavobacterium</em> sp., <em>Acinetobacter</em> <em>rhizoshaerae</em>, <em>Bacillus</em> <em>pumilus</em>, <em>Achrobacterium</em> sp., <em>Bacillus</em> sp., and <em>Ochrobacterium</em> sp. The increase in viable bacterial counts over the period of 21 days indicated the use of herbicide as carbon source for their various metabolism processes. These bacteria can be recommended as environmentally safer alternatives tools to protect soil from excessive use of glyphosate containing herbicide residues which might contaminate the soil.</p> ALAKE OMORINOLA Oluwagbenga Ogunbiyi UKAMAKA OWOH-ETETE Copyright (c) 1970 Omorinola A. A., Ogunbiyi O. J., Owoh-Etete U. 2022-09-22 2022-09-22 5 4 e401 e401 10.36547/be.401 BACTERIOLOGICAL QUALITY AND MICROBIAL HEALTH RISKS ASSOCIATED WITH FRESH-FROZEN AND DRIED-PROCESSED READY-TO-SELL PRAWNS (MACROBRACHIUM ROSENBERGII) <p><!--StartFragment--></p> <p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-bottom: 0cm; text-align: justify; line-height: normal; mso-layout-grid-align: none; text-autospace: none;">This study set out to determine the bacteriological quality and the microbial health risks associated with ready-to-sell prawns. Fresh-frozen prawns were obtained from supermarkets and dried-processed prawns were obtained from local markets in Akure, Nigeria (n = 120). Levels of <em>E. coli</em>, faecal coliforms, <em>Shigella</em>,<em> Salmonella </em>and <em>Staphylococcus aureus</em> in the samples were determined using standard microbiological methods. Probabilities of infection (<em>P<sub>i</sub></em>) associated with exposure to <em>Salmonella </em>and <em>Shigella </em>were determined using beta-Poisson model and for <em>S. aureus </em>exponential model was adopted<em>. </em>Mean level of <em>Salmonella</em> was 0.9 log<sub>10 </sub>CFU 100 g<sup>-1</sup> in fresh-frozen prawns whereas mean levels of <em>Shigella </em>in fresh-frozen and dried-processed prawns were 4.4 and 4.5 log<sub>10 </sub>CFU 100 g<sup>-1</sup> respectively. Probability of infection with exposure to a single CFU of <em>Salmonella</em>, <em>Shigella</em> and <em>S. aureus</em> was predicted at 1.6 × 10<sup>-7</sup>, 1.9 × 10<sup>-4 </sup>and 7.6 × 10<sup>-8</sup> respectively. This study demonstrates that the levels of bacterial contamination of the prawns and the risks per serving per year were unacceptable.</p> <p><!--EndFragment--></p> Chinedum Agha-Orji Olalemi Adewale Oluwasogo Abiola Edema Copyright (c) 2022 Chinedum Agha-Orji, Olalemi Adewale Oluwasogo, Abiola Edema 2022-11-10 2022-11-10 5 4 e487 e487 10.36547/be.487