Bacterial Empire <p><strong>Bacterial Empire</strong>&nbsp;(<strong>ISSN 2585-9374</strong>) is Open Access, peer- reviewed online scientific&nbsp;journal published by the SciCell publishing company. The major focus of the journal is a regular publishing of original scientific article, short communication and reviews about all of kind of articles relation to bacterial world, all ways of bacteriology.&nbsp;</p> SciCell publishing company en-US Bacterial Empire 2585-9374 ASSESSMENT OF HEAVY METALS UPTAKE BY SOME SELECTIVE BACTERIAL STRAINS ISOLATED FROM HAZARIBAGH TANNERY EFFLUENT IN DHAKA CITY, BANGLADESH: BIOSORPTION VIEWPOINT <p>Biosorption can be defined as a Physiochemical process that cleanses heavy metal-contaminated water and aids in environmental remediation. The present exploration was carried out to examine the metal biosorbent potentiality of five bacterial strains.Biosorption capacity was assessed using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer where <em>Bacillus thuringiensis</em> showed uptake of Pb 0.56mg/g that was around 34.74%, Cd 0.38mg/g (20.0%), Ni 0.30 mg/g (15.8%), Cr 0.76mg/g (39.58%), Cu 0.14mg/g (7.61%) and As 0.28mg/g (14.43%) respectively. <em>Micrococcus sp.</em> showed reduction of Pb 0.62mg/g (39.89%), Cd 0.40mg/g (21.10%), Ni 0.22mg/g (11.6%), Cr 0.46mg/g (23.96%), Cu 0.56mg/g (30.43%) and As 0.03mg/g (1.75%) respectively whereas <em>Pseudomonas sp. </em>exhibited reduction of As 0.56mg/g and 0.20mg/g (16% and 10%), Cu 0.26mg/g and 0.46mg/g (14% and 25%), Cr 0.74mg/g and0.56mg/g (39% and 29%), Ni 0.12mg/g and 0.38mg/g (6% and 20%), Pb 0.26mg/g and 0.68mg/g (19% and 41%) and Cd 0.46mg/g and 0.64mg/g (24% and 34%) respectively. The result displayed that the highest degradation of Pb and Cr were shown by <em>Pseudomonas aeruginosa </em>(41±0.01%) and <em>Bacillus thuringiensis </em>(39.58±0.05%) and lowest degradation of As was shown by <em>Micrococcus sp.</em> that was around 1.75±0.001%. By contrast, degradation of Pb in moderate condition was witnessed by <em>Bacillus cereus </em>(19.89±0.01%) and Ni by <em>Bacillus thuringiensis </em>(15.8±0.05%) respectively. Heavy metal’s biosorption is a quick process that might be an advantageous side for the removal of vast range of pollutants.</p> MD MONIRUL ISLAM Liakat Hossain Monirul Islam Pronabananda Das Shariar Islam Islam M.T. Jahan M.H. Kabir M.R. Islam A.N.K. Mamun Copyright (c) 2022 MD MONIRUL ISLAM, Liakat Hossain, Monirul Islam, Pronabananda Das, S.A.M. Shariar Islam, M.T. Jahan, M.H. Kabir, M.R. Islam, A.N.K. Mamun 2022-05-04 2022-05-04 5 2 e370 e370 10.36547/be.370 ASSESSMENT OF BACTERIOLOGICAL AND PHYSICOCHEMICAL STATUS OF WELL WATERS IN EMENE ENUGU, NIGERIA <p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-bottom: .0001pt; text-align: justify; line-height: normal;">Well water is a source of drinking water for many rural as well as sub-urban dwellers but the pollution of this water by bacteriological and chemical contaminants is of public health concern. Hence this study was aimed at accessing the bacteriological quality and physicochemical parameters of well waters located in Emene-Enugu, Nigeria. Water samples were aseptically drawn from ten different wells in Emene-Enugu. Physicochemical parameters such as temperature, pH, turbidity and electrical conductivity were determined using standard methods. Total and fecal coliform counts were also determined using the membrane filtration method. The isolates were also identified using cultural and biochemical tests. Pearson’s correlation was used to determine the relationship between the parameters. Temperature of the well waters ranged from 31.5±0.11 to 33.7±0.11<sup>o</sup>C while the pH ranged from 6.20±0.01 to 7.40±0.01. Turbidity and conductivity also ranged from 25±0.05 to 150±0.06 NTU and 21±0.58 to 163±0.12µS/cm respectively. Total and fecal coliform counts ranged from 0 to 179±2.31 cfu/100ml and 0 to 58±0.58 cfu/100ml respectively. Bacteria identification revealed the presence of <em>Enterobacter aerogenes</em>, <em>Salmonella enterica</em>, <em>Enterococcus faecalis</em>, <em>Proteus vulgaris</em>, <em>Escherichia coli</em>, <em>Klebsiella pneumonia</em> and <em>Citrobacter freundii</em>, in the water samples. Turbidity was significantly correlated with temperature, pH and fecal coliform (p = 0.000; r = 0.693, p = 0.000; r = -0.679 and p = 0.000; r = -0.655) respectively. These isolates are potential human pathogens, thus the well waters used in this study are not fit for human consumption and should be properly treated and monitored before domestic use.</p> Augustine Mbachu Chisom Ani Nancy Mbachu Copyright (c) 2022 Augustine Mbachu, Chisom Ani, Nancy Mbachu 2022-05-24 2022-05-24 5 2 e412 e412 10.36547/be.412 Hawthorn HAWTHORN, A PROMISING PLANT WITH DIVERSE BIOMEDICAL APPLICATIONS <p>Hawthorn (<em>Crataegus</em> species) is distributed widely in Asia, North America and Europe. The fruits and leaves of hawthorn have been used to treat many health conditions. Many <em>in vivo</em> and <em>in vitro</em> studies have been carried out for its biomedical applications. Hawthorn extract possesses a range of different activities including, antioxidant, antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, anticataract, hypolipidemic, hypotensive, and anticancer activities. The present review aims to give a detailed understanding of the morphology, chemical composition, pharmacological and biomedical activities of Hawthorn. Phytochemicals like flavonoids, procyanidins, catecholamines, polysaccharides, triterpenes, have been identified evaluated for biological activities. In addition, this review discusses the clinical trials of various Crataegus plants along with the scope for future research in this aspect.</p> Jamila Ramadan Mahmoud Khalil Copyright (c) 2022 Jamila Ramadan, Mahmoud Khalil 2022-05-04 2022-05-04 5 2 e335 e335 10.36547/be.335 SPOTLIGHT ON THE ASSOCIATION BETWEEN NANOBACTERIA AND SOME HUMAN DISEASES <p>Nanobacteria are the smallest cell-walled bacteria, recently discovered in human and commercial cell culture serum, also known as calcifying nanoparticles (CNPs). Nanobacteria are the name of a proposed class of living organisms particularly cell-walled microorganisms with a size much smaller than the generally accepted lower limit size for life (about 200nm). Recently, histopathological immunohistochemical staining, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and calcific staining studies revealed the association of nanobacteria in kidney and gall stones. Nanobacteria have been appeared to contribute to different benign and malignant calcifications in the form of calcium phosphate crystals and contribute to malignant calcifications in breast and ovarian cancer. Nanobacteria also cause prostatic stones in patients with chronic pelvic pain syndrome due to chronic prostatitis and are present in dental and pulp calculus. The evidence that nanobacteria exist within the human body and are closely related to numerous sorts of diseases is now overpowering. However, future research is required to reveal their nature and impact on health and disease. This paper aimed to highlight the harmful role of nano-bacteria on human health and to describe the association of nanobacteria and their hypothesized relationship with some human diseases.</p> Ali Mohamed Elshafei Copyright (c) 2022 Ali Mohamed Elshafei 2022-05-24 2022-05-24 5 2 e396 e396 10.36547/be.396 THE IMPORTANCE OF BIO FERTILIZERS AS ALTERNATIVE SOIL FERTILITY AMENDMENTS <p>There is a current interest in agrarian sustainability with soil microorganisms instead of agro-chemicals. Key constraints in the use of bio fertilizers are; inadequate awareness about bio inoculants and lack of promotion network and publicity among the end users. This review discusses current technical information a way of creating awareness in order to promote the use of bio fertilizers. Publon, Google Scholar, Science Direct and Microsoft Academic data bases were used for the review 2021. Research and review articles published from 2019 onwards were considered as current information for the review. The findings of the review are that; both primary and secondary macronutrients can be provided by bio fertilizers. Potential microbes are; free-living nitrogen fixing bacteria and cyanobacteria, symbiotic nitrogen-fixing bacteria and fungi such as mycorrhiza. Other important functions of bacteria are; conferring to plants the ability for salt tolerance, lignin degradation and remediation of heavy metals from the soil. Bio Compost, vermicompost and termite soil with their rich microorganism content can be used as bio fertilizers for soil nutrient increase. In order to reap maximum benefit from bio fertilizers there is need to formulate them in appropriate materials. Apart from addition of nutrients to the soil, bio fertilizers play an important role in plant health, conclusion. This paper has brought to the fore the need to improve rhizosphere management in a sustainable way particularly at this point in time when there are strong indications that it has deteriorated in the face of continued use of chemical fertilizers.</p> Chrispo Makheti Mutebi Vincent Moranga Copyright (c) 2022 Chrispo Makheti Mutebi, Vincent Moranga 2022-05-04 2022-05-04 5 2 e329 e329 10.36547/be.329 ANTIBACTERIAL EFFICACY OF Anopheles gambiae (MOSQUITOES) EXTRACTS ON SOME BACTERIA CAUSING THROAT INFECTIONS <p><strong>Introduction: </strong>Respiratory tract infection refers to any infectious disease involving the respiratory tract. In low-income and middle-income countries, respiratory tract infection is considered as one of the major public health problems. It can lead to severe mortality and morbidity in children as well as adults. Over the years there has been a development of resistance to antibiotics used for the treatment of throat infections which has led to the search for alternative therapy. Insects can be potentially useful as an alternative therapy because of the diverse bioactive compounds they possess.</p> <p><strong>Objective: </strong>This research investigated the antibacterial activity of the extract of <em>Anopheles gambiae</em> against bacterial isolates associated with throat infection.</p> <p><strong>Methods</strong>: The insects were bred in microbiology laboratory and identified in the Department of Biology, Federal University of Technology, Akure. The mosquitoes were collect and immobilized in the freezer at -4<sup>o</sup>C. The extracts were prepared by mecrating the mosquitoes into 30% Dimethlsulfoxide (DMSO) for its homogenization. Extracts were then tested against bacterial isolates <em>in-vitro </em>using agar well diffusion method. <strong>Results: </strong>Extracts were tested against bacterial isolates using agar well diffusion method which showed activity against <em>S. pyogenes</em> (22.00 ± 0.58<sup>b </sup>mm), <em>S. aureus</em> (19.67 ± 1.20mm) and <em>K. pneumoniae</em> (24 ± 1.15mm), while it showed no activity against <em>E. coli</em> and <em>S. pneumoniae</em>. <strong>Conclusion</strong>: <em>A. gambiae</em> extract may be considered as an alternative in medicine to combat the issue of increasing multidrug resistance to conventional antibiotics, the side effects of these antibiotics and high cost of synthetic drugs production. The most prevalent compound was n-hexadecenoic with retention time of 20.997, which was reported to exhibit antioxidant and antimicrobial activity.</p> Lateef Kasim Muftau Kolawole Oladunmoye Copyright (c) 2022 Lateef Kasim, Muftau Kolawole Oladunmoye 2022-05-04 2022-05-04 5 2 e383 e383 10.36547/be.383 GROWTH EVALUATION OF SULPHATE-REDUCING BACTERIA (SRB) ASSOCIATED WITH BURIED MILD STEEL RODS <p><strong>Introduction: </strong>Sulphate-reducing bacteria are the major cause of corrosion of underground structure corrosion of underground structures made of mild steel.</p> <p><strong>Objective: </strong>This study set out to evaluate the growth pattern of sulphate-reducing bacteria associated with buried mild steel rods in Akure metropolis, Nigeria</p> <p><strong>Methodology: </strong>Mild steel rods (12 mm diameter, area 39.97 cm<sup>2</sup>), were collected from Ondo State Water Corporation (ODSWC), Akure, Nigeria and were buried and monitored for a period of three months. Percentage composition of the mild steel rods was determined. Isolation of sulphate-reducing bacteria was carried out using compounded Postgate C medium. Turbidimetric growth pattern and biochemical characteristics of the isolates were determined using standard protocols.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong><em>Citrobacter freundii, Citrobacter gilleni, Enterobacter aerogenes, Pseudomonas aeruginosa</em>, <em>Desulfovibrio vulgaris</em> and <em>Bacillus megaterium </em>were the bacterial consortia isolated from the buried mild steel rods. Turbidity was observed to be at low level on the 5<sup>th</sup> day of sulphate-reducing bacteria (SRB) growth, but increased to optimum on the 10<sup>th</sup> day of incubation and reduced drastically on the 15<sup>th</sup> day. The growth outline of sulphate-reducing bacteria (SRB) was confirmed by the swelling turbid periodic growth for all four mediums. Iron (Fe) had the highest percentage mineral composition of 98.7 % whereas lanthanum had the least composition at 0.00031 %.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Findings of this study revealed the presence of sulphate-reducing bacteria (SRB) on buried mild steel rods of a water distribution system suggesting induction of corrosion of the underground mild steel pipes.</p> Ifeoluwaposi Oluwabunmi Ogundana Adewale Oluwasogo Olalemi Daniel Juwon Arotupin Copyright (c) 2022 Ifeoluwaposi Oluwabunmi Ogundana, Adewale Oluwasogo Olalemi, Daniel Juwon Arotupin 2022-05-04 2022-05-04 5 2 e354 e354 10.36547/be.354 NANOTECHNOLOGY STRATEGY AS ANTIBACTERIAL: A PRIMER FOR THE NOTICE <p>Multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacteria pose a major threat to all fields of medical science as it can result in treatment failure which can have severe consequences, especially in case of critical patients. The availability of new antibacterial agents appeared to be a very complex process. One of the most important aspect of modern field research is nanotechnology, it deals with synthesis, design and manipulation of particles structures ranging from approximately 1-100nm. Nanoparticles (NPs) are of great importance in areas like health care, cosmetics, food and feed, environmental health e.t.c. Nanoparticles matrix properties and constituent materials can be used to categorized them into inorganic and organic nanosystems. Techniques use within the synthesis of NPs includes; chemical, physical, chemistry, and biological methods, every methodology has its advantages and disadvantages with common issues of value, quantifiability and uniform particle size. Famous microbiologist Alexander Fleming said that “There is probably no chemotherapeutic drug to which in suitable circumstances the bacteria can not react by in some way acquiring fastness.” thus, there's high chance that the organism can also become resistance to newly developed medication at later stage. To this end NPs are considered to be good antibacterial agents and may overcome the barrier of MDR owing to their ability to anchor to the bacterial cell wall, multifunctional mechanisms to intervene normal cell functionality and subsequently penetrate it, thereby causing structural changes in the cell membrane permeability leading to cell death.</p> Tope Abraham Ibisanmi Jamiu Olaseni Aribisala Copyright (c) 2022 Tope Abraham Ibisanmi, Jamiu Olaseni Aribisala 2022-05-24 2022-05-24 5 2 e405 e405 10.36547/be.405 ANTIBACTERIAL AND ANTIFUNGAL ACTIVITIES OF Impatiens balsamina (L.): LITERATURE REVIEW ARTICLE <p>The human body contains a diverse range of microorganisms, including bacteria and fungi. The most common bacteria and fungi caused skin pathogens are Staphylococcus aureus, Propionibacterium acnes, Staphylococcus epidermis and Candida albicans. Many studies have found that <em>Impatiens balsamina</em> (L.) contains antibacterial and antifungal activities. Acne and Candidiasis are diseases that often arise and can interfere with comfort for sufferers. Usually, acne is caused by the bacteria Propionibacterium acnes, Staphylococcus epidermis and Staphylococcus aureus, and Candidiasis caused by the Candida albicans. One of the plants that is widely used as an antiacne and antifungal treatment is the <em>Impatiens balsamina</em> (L.). <em>Impatiens balsamina</em> (L.) has antiacne and antifungal activities. The purpose of the review is to find out if the <em>Impatiens balsamina</em> (L.) has activity as an antiacne, antifungal and can identify secondary metabolites that can inhibit the emergence of bacteria in acne and candidiasis in various journals. The method used is the Literature Review Article (LRA) method. A search through Google Scholar and Pubmed found 12 articles that <em>Impatiens balsamina</em> (L.) contains secondary metabolites, namely flavonoids and saponins. The mechanism of action of flavonoids is by inhibiting the function of cell membranes and energy metabolism of bacteria, while the mechanism of action of saponins as antifungals is by damaging cell membranes, causing cell leakage which ultimately leads to cell death. From the two mechanisms, these secondary metabolites can have antiacne and antifungal activities.</p> Anggun Hari Kusumawati Siti kholillah Farhamzah Mr. Amad Samsudin Sukma Dewi Apriana Anggi Maudia Permadi Irma Adawiah Hasnimar Mr. Copyright (c) 2022 Anggun Hari Kusumawati, Siti kholillah, Farhamzah Mr., Amad Samsudin, Sukma Dewi Apriana, Anggi Maudia Permadi, Irma Adawiah, Hasnimar Mr. 2022-05-04 2022-05-04 5 2 e334 e334 10.36547/be.334 PRODUCTION AND UTILIZATION OF PULLULANASE FROM BACILLUS CLAUSII FOR ENHANCED RESISTANT STARCH PRODUCTION IN GARRI <p>Resistant starch is the portion of starch which escapes digestion in the small intestine and passes into the large intestine where it is fermented by gut microflora. It is considered a functional component of food due to the health benefits it confers following its consumption. The aim of this research was to produce garri with high resistant starch using pullulanase enzyme from <em>Bacillus clausii</em>. The organism was isolated from different cassava processing sites in Awka and identified based on phenotypic, biochemical and molecular characteristics. Pullulanase assay was carried out using standard procedures at 540 nm. Optimum conditions for pullulanase production was determined, after which the pullulalanse enzyme was used to modify garri. The test organism with the highest pullulanase activity was identified as <em>Bacillus clausii</em>. Optimum pullulalanse activity was observed with an innoculum size of 3.0ml, pH 6, an incubation temperature of 35<sup>o </sup>C and incubation time of 48 hours. The resistant starch content was found to be higher for enzyme-treated garri samples (13.81%) than for the untreated garri samples with (2.69%). This research shows that pullulanase enzyme from <em>Bacillus clausii</em> is a very useful industrial raw material for the increased production of resistant starch in foods.</p> Nwanneka Nwozor Frank Ogbo Copyright (c) 2022 Nwanneka Nwozor, Frank Ogbo 2022-05-04 2022-05-04 5 2 e384 e384 10.36547/be.384