The Evaluation of Evidence Bisphenol A Exposure and Human Reproductive Health: A review
Infertility is widespread problem defined as the inability to conceive after one year of unprotected intercourse. One of the most notable factors causing this status is the exposure to environmental contaminants. It is now recognized that many contaminants present in the environment have the ability to interfere in the action of hormones and therefore are termed endocrine disruptors (EDs). Some of these compounds are present in nature, but the majority are artificial and released into the environment by the human activities without any prior knowledge of their impact on ecosystems, animal welfare, or wildlife and human health. Many epidemiological studies have reported a radical growth in the incidence of male infertility, accompanied by decreasing sperm quality, decline in spermatozoa motility, defect in Leydig cell morphology, insufficient activity of steroidogenesis and spermatogenesis. The similar situation was observed in female, when the increased risk for endometriosis, reproductive and other endocrine-related cancer, impaired oocytes, ovarian dysfunction, or irregular menstrual cycle was confirmed. All mentioned consequences have been associated with increasing concentration of bisphenol A (BPA) in the environment. Humans are exposed to BPA not only through specific occupational circumstance, but nowadays more generally also from the ordinary day-to-day domestic and workplace lifestyles. Almost 3.4 million tons per year of BPA is used in a variety common product such as food packaging, household products, epoxy resins, dental sealants and many others. Under these endpoints, apprehensions about the reproductive dysfunctions associated with BPA action are unquestionable. In this review, we address the topic of BPA effects on reproductive function in males and females and emphasize its effects on overall health. A considerably more detailed and systematic research in EDs toxicology is required for a better understanding of risks associated with exposure to environmental toxicants.